Friday, November 20, 2009

The differential
diagnosis of cough is
best developed with
the use of anatomy.
Cough may arise from
an irritative focus
anywhere along the
respiratory tract. The
irritation may be
intrinsic, in which case
it is usually
neoplastic, or toxic, or
it may be extrinsic, in
which case it is often
neoplastic or vascular..

1. Intrinsic irritation.
Pharyngitis, whether
due to virus,
streptococcus, or
diphtheria, is a
common cause of
cough. Hypertrophied
tonsils or adenoids
may also initiate the
cough reflex. Other
pharyngeal causes are
angioneurotic edema,
leukemia, and
agranulocytosis. The
esophagus is an
extrinsic cause of
cough in most cases,
but a
fistula from
esophageal carcinoma
or reflux esophagitis
with repeated
aspiration of
hydrochloric acid
(HCl) may cause a
chronic cough..(mcm baca c0ding je.. Xpe2 truskan membaca.. Hehe.. Ntah apa alien yg ada lg pasal bat0k neh.. Sambung2..)
Diverticula (drakula? Hahaha) of the
esophagus (asparagus.. Ala yg 0wg wat sayur tu ar..) may press
on the trachea and
cause a cough.
2. In the larynx, the
numerous infections
of the pharynx
discussed above may
irritate the cough
centers but, in
addition, laryngeal
polyps, (polypipe.. 0wg x pakai paip besi dah skrg.. Guna p0ly.. X karat) tuberculosis,
and trauma from
overuse are important
causes. The more
common causes of
cough, especially a
nonproductive cough,
are in the
tracheobronchial (sejenis makhluk asing yg menyerupai berudu..)
area. Numerous
viruses cause
especially influenza,
but bacterial causes
such as whooping(hekhek.. Ada gak yg mcm nama bl0g ni..)
cough should always
be considered.
Tuberculosis and
carcinoma (sedara dekat makcik n0rmah) are
important here, as
are toxic gases such
as chlorine and
cigarette smoke.
whether congenital (genital2 ni mencar0t ar ni.. Jgn sebut dpn budak2) or
acquired, and the
associated postnasal (nama asal pejabat p0st)
drip from chronic
sinusitis must not be
forgotten. A search
for asthma is
important in areas
with high pollen
3. In the alveoli, in
addition to
tuberculosis, and
metastatic), several
new etiologies are
added. Thus,
pulmonary embolism,
parasites, fungi (such
as actinomycosis),
and autoimmune
diseases (i.e.,
Wegener granuloma)
should be included.
4. Extrinsic irritation.
The extrinsic causes
are mainly from the
structures of the
especially the heart.
A large heart from
congestive heart
failure or a single
chamber (nama gelaran member aku masa kecik.. C0z tinger dia ada kelainan sket..kite0rg panggey dia chamber) enlargement
(as in mitral stenosis)
may compress the
bronchus and
recurrent laryngeal
nerve and cause a
cough. Pericarditis,(tok m0yang ibu peri dlm cite ind0n)
aortic aneurysms, and
rings are other
cardiovascular causes.
Finally, other
structures in the
mediastinum (menda ni sedap diminum dgn ais.. Sila pesan digerai berhampiran) such as a
substernal thyroid, a
large lymph node
from Hodgkin disease,
and occasionally a
dermatoid cyst must
be considered.
Trauma can lead to a
cough whether it hits
the lung,
mediastinum, or

Hahaha.. Guane? Tentu lidah anda sudah bertambah sihat setelah membaca entry pasal bat0k ni kan? Hahaha..
P/s : sayangi lidah anda.. Anda perlukan lidah untuk byk perkara.. :p

0 whooperz: